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He then calculates that this would increase the total animal mass by 2-3% and decides that this amount is small enough that he can ignore it completely. It is important to take the size of animals into account when considering how much space they would occupy because the greatest number of species occurs in the smallest animals. Vermicomposting could reduce the rate of waste accumulation, but it requires maintenance of its own. The biology of spiders, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, New York. The following objections are covered in more detail by Brown. Walt Brown's model proposes that the Flood waters came from a layer of water about ten miles underground, which was released by a catastrophic rupture of the earth's crust, shot above the atmosphere, and fell as rain. Kent Hovind proposed that the Flood water came from a comet which broke up and fell on the earth. [Johnsen et al, 1992,; Alley et al, 1993] A worldwide flood would be expected to leave a layer of sediments, noticeable changes in salinity and oxygen isotope ratios, fractures from buoyancy and thermal stresses, a hiatus in trapped air bubbles, and probably other evidence. Why did the Flood not leave traces on the sea floors? [Twenhofel, 1961] In a year of the Flood, they could have settled about half a meter. Such layers are sometimes meters in width, interbedded with sediments containing marine fossils.

However, even Jewish sources admit that this contradicts the unambiguous word of the Bible. 187] The number and size of clean birds is small enough to disregard entirely, but the Bible at one point (Gen. Woodmorappe performed such an analysis and came to the conclusion that the animals would take up 47% of the ark. How did such a small crew dispose of so much waste? The animals aboard the ark would have been in very poor shape unless they got regular exercise. Again, this has the problem of the heat from the gravitational potential energy. A year long flood should be recognizable in sea bottom cores by (1) an uncharacteristic amount of terrestrial detritus, (2) different grain size distributions in the sediment, (3) a shift in oxygen isotope ratios (rain has a different isotopic composition from seawater), (4) a massive extinction, and (n) other characters. Why is there no evidence of a flood in tree ring dating? This apparently occurs when a body of salt water has its fresh-water intake cut off, and then evaporates.

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It defines clean animals essentially as ruminants, a suborder which includes about 69 recent genera, 192 recent species [Wilson & Reeder, 1993], and probably a comparable number of extinct genera and species. However, the ark was divided into separate rooms and decks (Gen. How was fresh air circulated throughout the structure? The ungulates alone would have produced tons of manure a day. Several people have proposed answers to these questions, but none which consider all the implications of their models. Why is there no evidence of a flood in ice core series? [Poldervaart, 1955] A deposition rate ten times as high for 5000 years before the Flood would still only account for less than 0.02% of limestone deposits. Chalk is largely made up of the bodies of plankton 700 to 1000 angstroms in diameter [Bignot, 1985]. "Creationism: Please Don't Call It Science" Creation/Evolution, 13:1 (Summer 1993), 45-49. Geology of the Himalayas, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., New York. A., 1990, Early Pennsylvanian swamp forests in the Mary Lee coal zone, Warrior Basin, Alabama.

That is a small percentage of the total number of species, but ruminants are among the largest mammals, so their bulk is significant. 8-9) gets around the problem by citing Jewish tradition which gives only 13 domestic genera as clean. Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., Philadelphia PA. The waste on the lowest deck at least (and possibly the middle deck) could not simply be pushed overboard, since the deck was below the water line; the waste would have to be carried up a deck or two. A few of the commonly cited models are addressed below. This model, proposed by Whitcomb & Morris and others, proposes that much of the Flood water was suspended overhead until the 40 days of rain which caused the Flood. Ice cores from Greenland have been dated back more than 40,000 years by counting annual layers. Such a mass of water as the Flood would have provided sufficient buoyancy to float the polar caps off their beds and break them up. In fact, the Greenland ice cap would not regrow under modern (last 10 ky) climatic conditions. Objects this small settle at a rate of .0000154 mm/sec.

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We deliver papers of different types: essays, theses, book reviews, case studies, etc. Some creationists provided even more detailed models, and these are also addressed (see especially sections 5 and 7). Second, the whole story can be dismissed as a series of supernatural miracles. However, one must wonder about a God who reportedly does one thing and then arranges every bit of evidence to make it look like something else happened. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 103 (1-2): 67-71. If we grant 400 days for this to settle, and ignore possible compaction since the Flood, we still have 15 meters of sediment settling per day. Extraterrestrial impact events: the record in the rocks and the stratigraphic record. A literal interpretation of the Flood story in Genesis, however, does imply certain physical consequences which can be tested against what we actually observe, and the implications of such an interpretation are investigated below. Creationists argue against the local flood model because it doesn't fit their own literalist preconceptions, but I know of no physical evidence contrary to such a model. The continental tree-ring record - absolute chronology, C-14 calibration and climatic-change at 11 KA. One formation in New Jersey is six kilometers thick. The longest wooden ships in modern seas are about 300 feet, and these require reinforcing with iron straps and leak so badly they must be constantly pumped. There is a reason why Gila monsters, yaks, and quetzals don't all live together in a temperate climate. [Zimmer, 1992] How do you explain the formation of varves? Wood is simply not strong enough to prevent separation between the joints, especially in the heavy seas that the Ark would have encountered. Competition between species would have driven most of them to extinction. How can you explain a thin layer of high carbonate sediment being deposited over an area of ten thousand square kilometers for some thirty minutes, followed by thirty minutes of low carbonate deposition, etc.?

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